Thinking about thought

The Division of Medical Education is strongly committed to researching and teaching the importance of critical thinking in medicine. Currently, we’re demonstrating that commitment by supporting Anna MacLeod’s proposed research project, “Becoming a physician in a digital age: Mobile technologies and critical thinking”.

Meanwhile, members of the Critical Thinking Program Advisory Group are busy supervising Isaac Siemens and Rakesh Gupta, two medical students looking at the role of feedback in clinical decision-making.

These are just a couple of the exciting projects taking place within the program. For a thorough look at what we’ve been working on, please review our research publications.



The Cognitive Autopsy:  A Root Cause Analysis of Medical Decision Marking by P. Croskerry.  Oxford University Press, April (print) - May (online) 2020.  For more information visit:

Book chapters:

“Clinical Decision Making” by P. Croskerry
In: Barach PR, Jacobs JP, Laussen PC, Lipshultz SE (eds).  Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Care. Volume 2. Quality Improvement and Patient Safety.  Springer: 2015, pp. 397-409.

Journal articles:

“Deciding about fast and slow decisions.” by P. Croskerry, D. Petrie, J. Reilly and G. Tait
Academic Medicine 2014; 2: 197-200.

“Bias: A normal operating characteristic of the diagnosing brain.” by P. Croskerry
Diagnosis 2014; 1: 23-27.

“Cognitive debiasing 1: origins of bias and theory of debiasing.” by P. Croskerry, G. Singhal and S. Mamede
BMJ Quality & Safety 2013; 22 Suppl 2: ii58-ii64.

“Cognitive debiasing 2: impediments to and strategies for change.” by P. Croskerry, G. Singhal and S. Mamede
BMJ Quality & Safety 2013; 22 Suppl 2: ii65-ii72.

“From mindless to mindful practice—cognitive bias and clinical decision making.” by P. Croskerry
New England Journal of Medicine 2013;368: 24452448.

“ED Cognition: Any decision by anyone at any time.” by P. Croskerry
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (ED administration series) 2014; 16: 13-19.

“Experiential and rational decision making: a survey to determine how emergency physicians make clinical decisions.” by L.A. Calder, A.J. Forster, I.G. Stiell, L.K. Carr, J.C. Brehaut, J.J. Perry, C. Vaillancourt and P. Croskerry
Emergency Medicine Journal 2012; 29: 811–816.

“Perspectives on diagnostic failure and patient safety.” by P. Croskerry
Healthcare Papers, 2012; 15: 50-56

“Paramedic clinical decision making.” by J.L. Jensen, P. Croskerry and A.H. Travers
International Journal of Paramedic Practice 2011; 1: 63-71.

“Consensus on paramedic clinical decisions during high-acuity emergency calls: results of a Canadian Delphi study.” by J.L. Jensen, P. Croskerry, A.H. Travers
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011;13:310-318

“Better clinical decision making and reducing diagnostic error.” by P. Croskerry and G.R. Nimmo
Journal of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh 2011; 41:155-162.

“Evidence and its uses in health care and research: The role of critical thinking.” by M. Jenicek M, D. Hitchcock and P. Croskerry
Medical Science Monitor 2011; 17: RA12-17.

“Checklists to reduce diagnostic errors.” by J. Ely, M. Graber and P. Croskerry
Academic Medicine 2011; 86:307-313.

“Emotional issues in patient safety.” by P. Croskerry, A. Abbass and A.J. Wu   
Patient Safety 2010; 6:1-7.

“Paramedic clinical decision making during high acuity emergency calls: design and methodology of a Delphi study.” by J.L. Jensen, P. Croskerry, A.H. Travers
BMC Emergency Medicine 2009; 9:17 1-4.

“Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: Applications of a dual process model of reasoning.” by P. Croskerry
Advances in Health Science Education 2009; 14: 27-35.

“Context is everything or How could I have been that stupid?” by P. Croskerry
Healthcare Quarterly (Special Issue: Understanding Decision-Making in Healthcare and the Law) 2009; 12: 167-173.

“Decision-making in Healthcare and the Law: An introduction.” by J.M.  Davies, S. Caughey and P. Croskerry
Healthcare Quarterly (Special Issue: Understanding Decision-Making in Healthcare and the Law) 2009; 12: 169-70.

“A universal model for diagnostic reasoning.” by P. Croskerry
Academic Medicine 2009; 84: 1022-1028.