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HR‑pQCT imaging in children, adolescents and young adults: Systematic review and subgroup meta‑analysis of normative data
We aimed to investigate the methodologies on image acquisition of normative data of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in children, adolescents and/or young adults (up to 25 years) and to determine their normative data based on available literature.
A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1947 to July 2019. Quality of articles was assessed using Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) scoring system and Modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Articles which fitted the following criteria were combined to meta-analysis: age range (15 to 22.6 years), references at tibia (22.5mm) and/or radius (9.0 to 9.5mm).
Eight articles were ultimately included in the systematic review and 4 of them that filled the criteria were summarised in meta-analysis.
The results of random effects model of HR-pQCT parameters of the 4 articles were as follows: 1)Radius: bone volume fraction (BT/BV) [estimate 0.17:0.1229(lower)-0.2115 (upper); trabecular number (Tb_N):2.08(2.03-2.12); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th):0.07 (0.07-0.0.08); trabecular separation (Tb.Sp):0.41 (0.38-0.42); cortical thickness (Ct.Th):0.85 (0.76-0.94); cortical porosity (Ct.Po):1.53 (0.63-2.44); total area (Tt.Ar):263.66(-385.3-912.6); total bone density (Tt-vBMD):280.5 (73.1-487.7); Trabecular density (Tb-vBMD):223.6 (47.1-400.09), and cortical density (CT.vBMD):765.9 (389.1-1142.8). 2)Tibia: BT/BV:0.18 (0.17-0.19); Tb_N:2.02 (1.83-2.2); Tb.Th:0.08 (0.80-0.09); Tb.Sp:0.40(0.36-0.44); Ct.Th:1.32(1.26-1.38); Ct.Po:3.15 (1.1-5.2); Tt.Ar:693.1(150.2-1235.8); Tt-vBMD:343.76 (335.5-352.1); Tb-vBMD:223.6 (213.37 (193.5-233.2), and CT.vBMD:894.3 (857.6-931.1).
There is overall 'fair' evidence on reporting of results of normative data of HR-pQCT parameters in children, adolescents and/or young adults. However, data are scarce pointing out to the urgent need for standardization of acquisition parameters and guidelines on the use of HR-PQCT in these populations.
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