R2C2 feedback and coaching resources

R2C2 is an evidence-based reflective model for providing feedback and coaching through an interactive conversation. It comprises 4 iterative phases: Relationship, Reaction, Content and Coaching

A guide for R2C2

R2C2 Guide [PDF - 480 KB]

R2C2 for group/clinic use

R2C2 for residents and other learners, formal progress meetings

Tri-fold: R2C2 for residents’ formal feedback [PDF-581KB]

Below are links to 2 videos demonstrating the R2C2 model in a formal feedback and coaching discussion with a resident.  The first uses more competency-base language while the second is more generic.  A suggestion while watching the videos is to have the Resident Formal tri-fold in hand and try to identify each of the 4 phases and the phrases the supervisor uses, as well as the resident’s responses. 

Video 1 uses competency based language: https://youtu.be/_cSDQYjUEok

Video 2 uses generic language: https://youtu.be/-ljhCWYujks

Sample Action Plan [PDF - 396KB] 

R2C2 for learners ”In the moment”

Tri-fold: R2C2 for learners in the moment feedback [PDF-561KB]

Below are links 2 videos demonstrating the R2C2 model in an informal “in-the-moment” feedback and coaching discussion.  The first demonstrates a brief conversation with a learner at the beginning of a day to clarify goals and plan the day.   The second demonstrates the feedback and coaching discussion with the same learner at the end of that clinic using the 4 phases of the R2C2 model. A suggestion while watching it is to have the In-the-moment tri-fold in hand and try to identify each of the 4 phases and the phrases the supervisor uses, as well as the resident’s responses. 

https://youtu.be/13tDGRoHL1g  - introduction and planning (1.5 minutes)

https://youtu.be/MuEnhqjHOlQ   - full feedback at the end of an office day (7 minutes)

R2C2 for nurses


REFERENCES: Developing and Testing R2C2

·         Armson, H., Lockyer,J.M., Zetkulic, M.G., Könings, K.D., & Sargeant, J. (2019). Identifying coaching skills to improve feedback use in postgraduate medical education. Medical Education, 53(5):477-493. doi: 10.1111/medu.13818 

·         Graham R, Beuthin R. Exploring the Effectiveness of Multisource Feedback and Coaching with Nurse Practitioners. Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont). 2018;31(1):50-59.     https://www.longwoods.com/content/25472

·         Lockyer, J., Armson, H.A., Könings, K.D., Zetkulic, M., Sargeant, J., (2019) Impact of Personalized Feedback: The Case of Coaching and Learning Plans, In M Henderson, R Ajjawi, D Boud, and E Molloy, The impact of feedback in higher education, Palgrave Macmillan     https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030251116

·         Sargeant, J., Lockyer, J., Mann, K., Holmboe, E., Silver, I., Armson, H., Driessen, E., MacLeod, T., Yen, W., Ross, K. & Power, M. (2015). Facilitated Reflective Performance Feedback: Developing an Evidence- and Theory-Based Model That Builds Relationship, Explores Reactions and Content, and Coaches for Performance Change (R2C2). Acad Med, 90(12), 1698-706. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000809.     https://insights.ovid.com/article/00001888-201512000-00034

·         Sargeant, J., Armson, H., Driessen, E., Holmboe, E., Könings, K., Lockyer, J., Lynn, L., Mann, K., Ross, K., Silver, I., Soklaridis, S., Warren, A., Zetkulic, M., Boudreau, M., Shearer, C. Evidence-informed facilitated feedback: the R2C2 feedback model.MedEdPORTAL. 2016;12:10387.       https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10387

·         Sargeant, J., Mann, K., Manos, S., Epstein, I., & Warren, A., Shearer, C., & Boudreau M. (2017). R2C2 in Action: Testing an Evidence-Based Model to Facilitate Feedback and Coaching in Residency. J Grad Med Educ, 9(2), 165-170. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-16-00398.1.    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398131/

·         Sargeant, J., Lockyer, J.M., Mann, K., Armson, H., Warren, A., Zetkulic, M., Soklaridis, S., Könings, K.D., Ross, K., Silver, I., Holmboe, E., Shearer, C., & Boudreau M. (2018). The R2C2 Model in Residency Education: How Does It Foster Coaching and Promote Feedback Use? Acad Med, 93(7), 1055-1063. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002131.     https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001888-201807000-00030

·         R2C2 resource website: https://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/cpd/faculty-development/R2C2.html

·         Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing | Understanding the Stages of Team Formation | MindTools website:  https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm